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Acid & bases

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There are three major classifications of substances known as acids or bases. The Arrhenius definition states that an acid produces H+ in solution and a base produces OH-. This theory was developed by Svante Arrhenius in 1883. Later, two more sophisticated and general theories were proposed. These are the Br√łnsted-Lowry and the Lewis definitions of acids and bases. The Lewis theory is discussed elsewhere.The strength of a conjugate acid/base varies inversely with the strength or weakness of its parent acid or base. Any acid or base is technically a conjugate acid or conjugate base also; these terms are simply used to identify species in solution (i.e acetic acid is the conjugate acid of the acetate anion, a base, while acetate is the conjugate base of acetic acid, an acid).The pH scale is often measured on a 1 to 14 range, but this is incorrect (see pH for more details). Something with a pH less than 7 indicates acidic properties and greater than 7 indicates basic properties. A pH at exactly 7 is neutral. The higher the [H+], the lower the pH.

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